How to: Documenting new feature toggles

Purpose of feature toggle documentation

To learn more about feature toggles and how they are used and reported on, see OEP-17: Feature Toggles.

The documentation for feature toggles is a crucial source of information for a very wide audience, including Open edX operators, product owners and developers. The documentation will be available to developers directly in code, and extracted into a human-readable document to be used by all audiences, and especially for Open edX operators.

Please keep all of these audiences in mind when crafting your documentation.

Example Documentation

Boilerplate template

Copy-paste this boilerplate template to document a feature toggle:

# .. toggle_name: SOME_FEATURE_NAME
# .. toggle_implementation: WaffleFlag OR WaffleSwitch OR CourseWaffleFlag OR ExperimentWaffleFlag OR ConfigurationModel OR SettingToggle OR SettingDictToggle OR DjangoSetting
# .. toggle_default: True OR False
# .. toggle_description: Add here a detailed description of the consequences of enabling this feature toggle.
#   Note that all annotations can be spread over multiple lines by prefixing every line after the first by
#   at least three spaces (two spaces plus the leading space).
# .. toggle_warnings: (Optional) Add here additional instructions that users should be aware of. For instance, dependency
#   on additional settings or feature toggles should be referenced here. If this field is not needed, simply remove it.
# .. toggle_use_cases: temporary OR circuit_breaker OR vip OR opt_out OR opt_in OR open_edx
# .. toggle_creation_date: 2020-01-01
# .. toggle_target_removal_date: 2020-07-01 (this is required if toggle_use_cases includes temporary. If not, simply remove it.)
# .. toggle_tickets: (Optional),, (details initial feature)

Configuration model

Annotations can also be written in docstrings. This is particularly useful for documenting a ConfigurationModel class, for instance:

class SomeFeatureFlag(ConfigurationModel):
    .. toggle_name: SomeFeatureFlag.enabled
    .. toggle_implementation: ConfigurationModel

Annotation fields

Most annotation fields are self-explanatory. In this section we describe in more details some of the more complex annotation fields.


Must be one of the following:

  • “SettingToggle”, “SettingDictToggle”: for objects that inherit from each of these.

  • “DjangoSetting”: for boolean Django Setting toggles that do not yet use the setting toggle classes.

  • “WaffleFlag”, “WaffleSwitch”, “CourseWaffleFlag”, “ExperimentWaffleFlag”: for objects that inherit from each of these.

  • “ConfigurationModel”: for objects that inherit from this.

For more details. see How to: Implement the right toggle type.


To decide what are the use cases of a feature toggle, one should refer to the list of use cases outlined in OEP-17 on feature toggles:

Temporary (.. toggle_use_cases: temporary):

  • Use Case 1: Incremental Release (expected timeline: 3 months)

  • Use Case 2: Launch Date (expected timeline: 3 months)

  • Use Case 3: Ops - Monitored Rollout (expected timeline: 3 months)

  • Use Case 5: Beta Testing (expected timeline: 6 months)


  • Use Case 4: Ops - Circuit Breaker (expected timeline: 5 years, .. toggle_use_cases: circuit_breaker)

  • Use Case 6: VIP / White Label (expected timeline: 5 years, .. toggle_use_cases: vip)

  • Use Case 7: Opt-out/Opt-in (expected timeline: 2 years, .. toggle_use_cases: opt_out or .. toggle_use_cases: opt_in)

  • Use Case 8: Open edX option (expected timeline: 3 years, .. toggle_use_cases: open_edx)

Additional considerations:

  • Bias should be toward “temporary” toggles.

  • For “temporary” toggles, you must include toggle_target_removal_date. See below.

  • For “temporary” toggles, see toggle_tickets below for recommendations.


Set to the target date planned for removal of the toggle.

  • Use YYYY-MM-DD format (e.g. 2021-04-07).

  • Required for “temporary” toggles.

  • Do not include this annotation for “permanent” toggles. Mark as “temporary” instead.

  • If the date is uncertain, add 3-6 months to the creation date.

    • This is not a commitment, but may be used to trigger a conversation about removal.

    • For legacy toggles, it is ok for this date to be in the past.

  • If you want to highlight a dependency on a named release, add additional notes to the toggle_warning or toggle_description as appropriate.


Initially, the toggle_tickets annotation was intended for removal tickets for “temporary” toggles. This might include:

  • a link to a DEPR(ecation) ticket, and/or

  • a link to a JIRA ticket created to clean-up the “temporary” toggle.

This annotation is now also used to provide links to other useful supporting documentation, with the following considerations:

  • Prefer using links to more permanent documentation, like ADRs, how-tos, READMEs, etc.

  • Try to avoid links to PRs or private JIRA tickets. Some alternatives solutions include:

    • Enhance the toggle_description or toggle_warning with additional notes.

    • Update the PR description of the PR that adds or updates the annotation to include the links, if they don’t need to be a part of the annotation.

    • Write a more permanent doc and use it instead.

    • If it still makes sense to use the link, include it with context (see below).

  • If the link url doesn’t contain context (e.g. PRs or JIRA tickets other than DEPR), add the context with additional text. For example:

    toggle_tickets: (private clean-up ticket)

Additional details

Multi-line annotations

Note that all annotation fields can be wrapped on multiple lines, as long as every line after the first is prefixed by at least three empty spaces, two spaces plus the base indentation of the first line. For instance:

# .. toggle_description: line 1
#   line2

Plain-text formatting

Note also that the annotation values will be considered as raw text and will not be parsed in any way. For instance, links and text formatting such as bold, italic or verbatim tags are currently unsupported. This might change in the future.


If you have a really long line, for example with a url that you don’t want to break up, you may need to disable pylint using the following:

# .. toggle_tickets:  # pylint: disable=line-too-long,useless-suppression

Same toggle in multiple services

If a toggle needs to be synchronized across services:

  • The toggle_description could state that you should read the description for the same toggle in XXX service, rather than duplicating a description.

  • The toggle_warnings should note that the value must be consistent with XXX service. XXX will often be the LMS, but not necessarily.

Third-party toggles

If we are setting a default for a toggle from a third-party library, include a link to the third-party library documentation for the toggle.

Documenting legacy feature toggles

This section is specifically geared toward documenting feature toggles that were implemented in the Open edX codebase before this annotation capability existed.


Here are a number of techniques you might use to learn about an existing toggle. Please add any helpful background links to the PR description of the PR that is adding the annotation.

  • Search github by replacing the toggle name in the following search url:

  • Use git blame or git log search (a.k.a. pickaxe).

  • Search the deprecated feature flag documentation in Confluence.

  • Search the additional reference tab of the toggle docathon spreadsheet.

  • When not a security concern, asking to compare its Production setting to the default can sometimes shed some light.

Refactor to use new toggle setting classes

Undocumented boolean Django Setting toggles defined in the Open edX codebase are probably not yet defined using a SettingToggle or SettingDictToggle. Read about implementing these toggle classes in How to: Implement the right toggle type.

Refactor LegacyWaffle classes

  • Import WaffleFlag instead of LegacyWaffleFlag or WaffleSwitch instead of LegacyWaffleSwitch.

  • Initialize these new classes with a single string that includes the fully namespaced toggle name, including the period.

Refactor direct waffle usage

Replace waffle.flag_is_active with a new documented WaffleFlag, or waffle.switch_is_active with a new documented WaffleSwitch.

If the flag or switch name is not namespaced (i.e. doesn’t contain a .), use the NonNamespacedWaffleFlag or NonNamespacedWaffleSwitch class. All newly defined feature toggles should be namespaced, so these classes only support legacy toggles.

Additional resources

For more details on the individual annotations, see OEP-17: Feature Toggles.

The documentation format used to annotate feature toggles is stored in the code-annotations repository: feature_toggle_annotations.yaml.

See how-to document non-boolean Django settings, for Django settings which are not feature toggles.